Below are articles and books that describe person-centered care in a variety of care settings. Some are prepared by professional associations or foundations. Others report research findings. All are accessible to the general public through these links. Watch for periodic updates!


Person-Centered Care Domains of Practice
Person-Centered Care Domains of Practice: General Home and Community Based Services Attributes and Assisted Living Indicators →

Person-Centered Care Domains of Practice: General Home and Community Based Services Attributes and Assisted Living Indicators

(2011) Prepared by Center for Excellence in Assisted Living (CEAL)

This document outlines PC attributes that should be found in all HCBS settings, as well as specific and measurable indicators of these attributes in assisted living. The attributes and indicators were developed through a consensus process that was further informed by a diverse group of assisted living, HCBS, and long term quality experts at an invitational meeting convened by the University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill and CEAL in Washington, DC on June 3rd through the generous support of The Commonwealth Foundation.

Post-Occupancy Evaluation of a Transformed Nursing Home
Post-Occupancy Evaluation of a Transformed Nursing Home: The First Four Green House Settings →

(2009) Co-authored by Lois J. Cutler and Rosalie A. Kane. Journal of Housing for the Elderly, Oct. 2009 23(4):304–34

The Green House innovation represents a radical departure from the traditional nursing home setting. These small, self-contained dwellings incorporate physical design changes, like private bedrooms and bathrooms and a residential-style kitchen, while eschewing institutional hallmarks, such as nursing stations and public-address systems. The Green House also transforms organizational and staff roles by giving broader responsibilities to frontline staff.

Nursing Home Organizational Change
Nursing Home Organizational Change: The “Culture Change” Movement as Viewed by Long-Term Care Specialists →

(2006) Written by Susan C. Miller, Edward Alan Miller, Hye-Young Jung, Samantha Sterns, Melissa A. Clark, and Vincent Mor. Medical Care Research and
Review, Aug. 2010 67(4 Suppl.):65S–81S.

The nursing home “culture change” movement aims to transform both nursing home physical environments and organizational systems by employing a less hierarchical structure and encouraging residents and frontline staff to be more involved in decisions that affect them. Published in a special supplement to Medical Care Research and Review, results from the Commonwealth Fund Survey of Long-Term Care Specialists document the barriers to culture change perceived as the most important by those specialists and highlight the factors associated with their perceptions.

Patient-Centered Care
Behavior Management vs. Better Education

(2014) Written by Kate Swaffer

Kate Swaffer is living with dementia. She writes about her experience at forum about needs of people with dementia held in Melbourne, Australia. She writes that those living with the diseases are often absent from the discussion. She argues for better trained staff to understand behaviors as unmet needs and offers several suggestions for improving care.

Time for Change: Persons with Dementia and “Behavioral Expressions.” not Behavior Symptoms

(2013) Written by Dr. Eilon Caspi

Language matters. Dr. Caspi argues that use of the term “behavioral symptoms” is often inaccurate and misleading. It implies that behaviors are an inevitable part of dementia. A more accurate and person-centered term is “behavioral expressions” of unmet need. By focusing on what the person with dementia is trying to convey through behaviors, we can often address needs and reduce or eliminate the behavior of concern.

Patient-Centered Care: The Road Ahead

(2013) Prepared by The Picker Institute

This is the final report of the Picker Institute, which closed its doors after 27 years. For its final event, the Picker Institute convened four recipients of its Picker Award for Excellence® with expertise in different aspects of the healthcare system in an unscripted panel moderated by Don Berwick, MD, former CEO and President of the Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI) at the 2012 IHI National Forum.

Culture Change in Long-Term Care
Culture Change in Long-Term Care: Participatory Action Research and the Role of the Resident →

Culture Change in Long-Term Care: Participatory Action Research and the Role of the Resident

(2011) Written by Robin Shura, Rebecca A. Siders, and Dale Dannefer. The Gerontologist, 51(2): 212–225. Published online 2010 December 16. doi: 10.1093/geront/gnq099 PMCID: PMC3140257

This study describes approaches to including residents in making decisions about their daily lives, particularly in meaningful ways to spend time. This approach has important applications for activities directors as well as for all who are interested in supporting residents in directing all facets of their lives.

Psychosocial Care in Nursing Homes in the Era of MDS 3.0
Psychosocial Care in Nursing Homes in the Era of MDS 3.0: Perspectives of the Experts →

(2012) Written by Sheryl Zimmerman, Ph.D., Robert Connolly, Ph.D., Joan L. Zlotnick, Ph.D., A.C.S.W., Mercedes Bern-Klug, Ph.D., M.S.W., and Lauren W. Cohen, M.A. Journal of Gerontological Social Work, July 2012 55(5):444–61

The authors of this Commonwealth Fund–supported article convened a panel of experts from diverse disciplines and organizations to identify and evaluate resources available to nursing homes and make recommendations to improve psychosocial care.


The Long Term Care Improvement Guide
The Long-Term Care Improvement Guide →

The Long-Term Care Improvement Guide

(2010) Prepared by The Picker Institute

Developed by Planetree in partnership with Picker Institute, the Long-Term Care Improvement Guide was created in 2010 to propel long-term care communities in their improvement efforts. Informed by focus groups with residents and staff, executive interviews, and a series of site visits to organizations with well-established resident-centered cultures, the Guide features more than 250 concrete strategies for actualizing a resident-directed, relationship-centered approach and demonstrates how culture change makes an impact on operational, clinical and financial outcomes. The featured strategies apply to Independent, Assisted Living, Short-term Rehabilitation and Nursing Home environments and are not specific to any one culture change model.


Type Size100%+